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Sigvartsen examines the immense interest in life after death, and speculation about the fates awaiting both the righteous and the wicked that prolifer…. The world of apocalyptic literature can be both vast and confusing. To journey successfully through its complexities, it is best to have an experience….

Joanna Southcott - remains one of the most significant and extraordinary religious figures of her era. In an age of reason and enlightenme…. Rating Required Select Rating 1 star worst 2 stars 3 stars average 4 stars 5 stars best. Email Required. Review Subject Required. Comments Required. Redles illustrates how Hitler's apocalyptic prophecies of a coming final battle with the so-called Jewish Bolsheviks, one that was conceived to be a war of annihilation, was transformed into an equally eschatological Final Solution AUTHOR: David Redles is associate professor of history at Cuyahoga Community College in Cleveland, Ohio, and an associate scholar of the Center for Millennial Studies at Boston University.

Free UK Delivery. Current Stock:. Add to Cart. Millennialism was taught by various earlier writers such as Justin Martyr , Irenaeus , Tertullian , Commodian , Lactantius , Methodius , and Apollinaris of Laodicea in a form now called premillennialism. Francis Nigel Lee , [10] "Justin's 'Occasional Chiliasm ' sui generis which was strongly anti-pre tribulationistic was followed possibly by Pothinus in A. Justin Martyr , discussing his own premillennial beliefs in his Dialogue with Trypho the Jew , Chapter , observed that they were not necessary to Christians:.

I admitted to you formerly, that I and many others are of this opinion, and [believe] that such will take place, as you assuredly are aware; but, on the other hand, I signified to you that many who belong to the pure and pious faith, and are true Christians, think otherwise. Melito of Sardis is frequently listed as a second century proponent of premillennialism. In the early third century , Hippolytus of Rome wrote:. And 6, years must needs be accomplished, in order that the Sabbath may come, the rest, the holy day "on which God rested from all His works.

Around , there were some similar influences on Tertullian , although only with very important and extremely optimistic if not perhaps even postmillennial modifications and implications. On the other hand, "Christian Chiliastic" ideas were indeed advocated in by Commodian ; in by the Egyptian Bishop Nepos in his Refutation of Allegorists; in by the almost unknown Coracion ; and in by Lactantius. Book II. On the Belief in the Resurrection, verse Lactantius is the last great literary defender of chiliasm in the early Christian church. Jerome and Augustine vigorously opposed chiliasm by teaching the symbolic interpretation of the Revelation of St.

John, especially chapter In a letter to Queen Gerberga of France around , Adso of Montier-en-Der established the idea of a "last World Emperor" who would conquer non-Christians before the arrival of the Antichrist. Christian views on the future order of events diversified after the Protestant reformation c. In particular, new emphasis was placed on the passages in the Book of Revelation which seemed to say that as Christ would return to judge the living and the dead, Satan would be locked away for years, but then released on the world to instigate a final battle against God and his Saints Revelation —6.

Previous Catholic and Orthodox theologians had no clear or consensus view on what this actually meant only the concept of the end of the world coming unexpectedly, "like a thief in a night", and the concept of "the antichrist " were almost universally held.

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Millennialist theories try to explain what this " years of Satan bound in chains" would be like. Various types of millennialism exist with regard to Christian eschatology , especially within Protestantism , such as Premillennialism , Postmillennialism , and Amillennialism. The first two refer to different views of the relationship between the "millennial Kingdom" and Christ's second coming.

Premillennialism sees Christ's second advent as preceding the millennium, thereby separating the second coming from the final judgment.

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In this view, "Christ's reign" will be physically on the earth. Postmillennialism sees Christ's second coming as subsequent to the millennium and concurrent with the final judgment. In this view "Christ's reign" during the millennium will be spiritual in and through the church. Amillennialism basically denies a future literal year kingdom and sees the church age metaphorically described in Rev.

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The Catholic Church strongly condemns millennialism as the following shows:. The Antichrist's deception already begins to take shape in the world every time the claim is made to realize within history that messianic hope which can only be realized beyond history through the eschatological judgment. The Church has rejected even modified forms of this falsification of the kingdom to come under the name of millenarianism, especially the "intrinsically perverse" political form of a secular messianism.

The early Christian concept had ramifications far beyond strictly religious concern during the centuries to come, as it was blended and enhanced with ideas of utopia. In the wake of early millennial thinking, the Three Ages philosophy developed. The Italian monk and theologian Joachim of Fiore died claimed that all of human history was a succession of three ages:. It was believed that the Age of the Holy Spirit would begin at around , and that from then on all believers would be living as monks, mystically transfigured and full of praise for God, for a thousand years until Judgment Day would put an end to the history of our planet.

The New Age movement was also highly influenced by Joachim of Fiore 's divisions of time, and transformed the Three Ages philosophy into astrological terminology. The current so-called " Age of Aquarius " will supposedly witness the development of a number of great changes for humankind, reflecting the typical features of millennialism. Jehovah's Witnesses believe that Christ will rule from heaven for 1, years as king over the earth, assisted by , holy ones. Looking back at German history , he distinguished two separate periods, and identified them with the ages of the 12th century Italian theologian Joachim of Fiore :.

After the interval of the Weimar Republic — , during which constitutionalism , parliamentarism and even pacifism ruled, these were then to be followed by:. Although van den Bruck was unimpressed by Hitler when he met him in and did not join the Nazi Party , the phrase was nevertheless adopted by the Nazis to describe the totalitarian state they wanted to set up when they gained power, which they succeeded in doing in Later, however, the Nazi authorities banned the informal use of "Third Reich" throughout the German press in the summer of , instructing it to use more official terms such as "German Reich", "Greater German Reich", and "National Socialist Germany" exclusively.

During the early part of the Third Reich many Germans also referred to Hitler as being the German Messiah , especially when he conducted the Nuremberg Rallies , which came to be held at a date somewhat before the Autumn Equinox in Nuremberg, Germany. In a speech held on 27 November , Hitler commented on his plans to have major parts of Berlin torn down and rebuilt :.

After Adolf Hitler's unsuccessful attempt to implement a thousand-year-reign, the Vatican issued an official statement that millennial claims could not be safely taught and that the related scriptures in Revelation also called the Apocalypse should be understood spiritually. Catholic author Bernard LeFrois wrote:. Millennial social movements are a specific form of millenarianism that are based on some concept of a one thousand-year cycle. Sometimes the two terms are used as synonyms, but this is not entirely accurate for a purist. Millennial social movements need not be religious, but they must have a vision of an apocalypse that can be utopian or dystopian.

Those who are part of millennial social movements are "prone to be violent," with certain types of millennialism connected to violence. The first is progressive, where the "transformation of the social order is gradual and humans play a role in fostering that transformation. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Millenarianism.

For an overview of the earthly reign of the messiah in Abrahamic religions, see Messianic age. This article is about the Christian concept. For the Millennial generation, see Millennials. Belief that a Golden Age or Paradise will occur prior to the final judgment. Maitreya Three Ages. Olivet Discourse Sheep and Goats. Four Horsemen Antichrist. Historicism Futurism. Second Coming Islamic eschatology. Kalki Kali Yuga Shiva. Death Resurrection Last Judgement. Messianism Book of Daniel Kabbalah.

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    End times Apocalypticism. Millenarianism Last Judgment. Gog and Magog Messianic Age. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. November Contrasting beliefs. The Millennium.

    Biblical texts. Key terms. See also: Three Eras.

    Hitler's Millennial Reich : David Redles :

    See also: Progressive revelation Baha'i. See also: Reich. The whole book profiles a Jewish group of this kind centered on the person of Sabbatai Zevi , but in part 1 Scholem also gives a number of comparable Christian examples, e. In Wessinger, Catherine ed. The Oxford Handbook of Millennialism.